Enzalutamide is an effective treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. However, variances in responses are observed and there is a need for biomarkers predicting treatment outcome and selection. In this study, we aimed to explore the predictive value of testosterone for first-line enzalutamide treatment of mCRPC.
A retrospective analysis of 72 mCRPC patients with no prior abiraterone or docetaxel treatment was performed. Serum testosterone was measured using a liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. Association of pre- and during-enzalutimide treatment testosterone levels with progression-free survival (PFS) and failure-free survival (FFS) was investigated using univariate and multivariate Cox models. Testosterone levels were dichotomized into a low (Q1) and high (interquartile range-Q4) group.
Median PFS (7.4 v. 20.8 months, P<0.0001) and FFS (6.6 v. 17.7 months, P<0.0001) were shorter for patients with low testosterone levels (<0.217 nmol/L) during enzalutamide treatment. Furthermore, univariate Cox proportional hazards models revealed that low testosterone levels were associated with shorter PFS (HR 3.5, 95%CI 1.9-6.3; P<0.001) and FFS (HR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7-5.5; P<0.001). Pre-treatment testosterone levels were lower than during-treatment levels (P<0.0001) and low pre-treatment testosterone levels (<0.143 nmol/L) were associated with shorter median PFS (12.6 v. 20.5 months, P<0.01) and FFS (12.6 v. 22.5 months, P<0.01).
The results of this study suggest that low serum testosterone levels during and prior to enzalutamide treatment can predict progression in mCRPC patients and identifies tumors resistant to next-in-line enzalutamide treatment. Validation in a prospective cohort is warranted.
Urologic oncology. 2022 Nov 12 [Epub ahead of print]
Lennart J van Winden, Mirthe Lanfermeijer, Vincent Dezentje, Andries M Bergman, Henk G van der Poel, Huub H van Rossum
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.. Electronic address: ., Department of Laboratory Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Urology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.