Assessing extra-prostatic extension for surgical guidance in prostate cancer: Comparing two PSMA-PET tracers with the standard-of-care.

Incontinence and impotence occur following radical prostatectomy due to injury to nerves and sphincter muscle. Preserving nerves and muscle adjacent to prostate cancer risks positive surgical margins. Advanced imaging with MRI has improved cancer localization but limitations exist.

To measure the accuracy for assessing extra-prostatic extension at nerve bundles for 2 PSMA-PET tracers and to compare the PET accuracy to standard-of-care predictors including MRI and biopsy results.

We studied men with PSMA-targeted PET imaging, performed prior to prostatectomy in men largely with intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer, and retrospectively evaluated for assessment of extra-prostatic extension with whole-mount analysis as reference standard. Two different PSMA-PET tracers were included: 68Ga-PSMA-11 and 68Ga-P16-093. Blinded reviews of the PET and MRI scans were performed to assess extra-prostatic extension (EPE). Sensitivity and specificity for extra-prostatic extension were compared using McNemar's Chi2.

Pre-operative PSMA-PET imaging was available for 71 patients with either 68Ga-P16-093 (n = 25) or 68Ga-PSMA-11 (n = 46). There were 24 (34%) with pT3a (EPE) and 16 (23%) with pT3b (SVI). EPE Sensitivity (87% vs. 92%), Specificity (77% vs. 76%), and ROC area (0.82 vs. 0.84) were similar between P16-093 and PSMA-11, respectively (P = 0.87). MRI (available in only 45) found high specificity (83%) but low sensitivity (60%) for EPE when using a published grading system. MRI sensitivity was significantly lower than the PSMA-PET (60% vs. 90%, P = 0.02), but similar to PET when using a >5 mm capsular contact (76% vs. 90%, P = 0.38). A treatment change to "nerve sparing" was recommended in 21 of 71 (30%) patients based on PSMA-PET imaging.

Presurgical PSMA-PET appeared useful as a tool for surgical planning, changing treatment plans in men with ≥4+3 or multi-core 3+4 prostate cancer resulting in preservation of nerve-bundles.

Urologic oncology. 2022 Nov 01 [Epub ahead of print]

Clinton D Bahler, Mark A Green, Mark A Tann, Jordan K Swensson, Katrina Collins, David Alexoff, Hank Kung, Eric Brocken, Carla J Mathias, Liang Cheng, Gary D Hutchins, Michael O Koch

Indiana University, Department of Urology, Indianapolis, IN. Electronic address: ., Indiana University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN., Indiana University, Department of Urology, Indianapolis, IN., Indiana University, Department of Pathology, Indianapolis, IN., Five Eleven Pharma, Inc., Philadelphia, PA., University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA.

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