An overview of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis: Potential role of miRNAs.

Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men worldwide, with the estimated sixth leading cause of cancer death. Despite major advancements in clinical biology and imaging, digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and biopsies indication remain the keystone for screening. Several kits are used to detect genomic changes and non-coding RNAs in the sample. However, its indication remains controversial for screening purposes. There is an urged need for non-invasive biomarkers to implement precision medicine. Recent research shows that miRNAs have an important role in the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic agents as non-invasive biomarkers. Though prostate cancer data remains controversial in other cancer types, such as breast cancer, miR-21 expression is upregulated. Here, we reported a prolonged revision of miRNAs as prostate cancer prognostic, diagnostic, and predictive tools, including data on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) regulation. The combined utilization of miRNAs with other tests will help patients and clinicians to select the most appropriate personalized treatment and to avoid overdiagnosis and unnecessary biopsies. Future clinical applications of our reported novel miRNAs have a substantial role in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer to help treatment decisions.

Translational oncology. 2022 Sep 20 [Epub ahead of print]

Muhammad Bilal, Aqsa Javaid, Farhat Amjad, Tamer Abou Youssif, Samia Afzal

Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Japan; SANKEN (The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Japan., Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan., Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur, Pakistan., Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Electronic address: ., Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Electronic address: .

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