Out-of-pocket costs represent an important component of financial toxicity and may impact patients' receipt of care. Herein, we evaluated patient-level factors associated with out-of-pocket costs for contemporary advanced prostate cancer treatment options.
We identified all commercially insured men receiving treatment for advanced prostate cancer between 2007 and 2019 within the OptumLabs Data Warehouse®. Patients were categorized into 3 treatment groups: androgen deprivation monotherapy, novel hormonal therapy, and nonandrogen systemic therapy. The primary outcome was out-of-pocket costs in the first year of treatment. The associations of treatment and patient variables with out-of-pocket costs were assessed using multivariable regression models. All costs were adjusted to reflect 2019 U.S. dollars using the Consumer Price Index.
In a cohort of 13,409 men 81% (n = 10,926) received androgen deprivation monotherapy, 6% (n = 832) novel hormonal therapy, and 12% (n = 1,651) nonandrogen systemic therapy. Mean treatment-related out-of-pocket costs in the first year were $165, $4,236, and $994 for androgen deprivation monotherapy, novel hormonal therapy, and nonandrogen systemic therapy, respectively. The adjusted difference in annual treatment-related out-of-pocket costs for novel hormonal therapy and nonandrogen systemic therapy were $2,581 (95% CI: $1,923-$3,240) and $752 (95% CI: $600-$903) higher than androgen deprivation monotherapy, respectively. Patient characteristics associated (P < .05) with higher treatment-related out-of-pocket costs included older age (65-74 years), Black race, lower comorbidity scores, and lower household income.
Patients receiving novel hormonal therapy for advanced prostate cancer had substantially higher treatment-related out-of-pocket costs. In addition to raising awareness among prescribers, these data support the inclusion of treatment associated financial toxicity in shared decision making for advanced prostate cancer and call attention to subgroups of patients particularly vulnerable to financial toxicity.
The Journal of urology. 2022 Sep 12 [Epub ahead of print]
Daniel D Joyce, Vidit Sharma, David H Jiang, Holly K Van Houten, Lindsey R Sangaralingham, Bijan J Borah, Eugene D Kwon, David F Penson, Stacie B Dusetzina, Jon C Tilburt, Stephen A Boorjian
Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota., Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota., Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee., Department of Health Policy, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee., Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.