The 2021 European Association of Urology recommendations for early prostate cancer detection included a risk-based algorithm. Risk assessment methods are proposed to prevent excessive use of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy, simultaneously reducing overdiagnosis and overtreatment. However, the clinical implications of sequential use of risk assessment tests have not yet been properly assessed. We provide an appraisal of the recommended algorithm and evaluate its outcomes in a contemporary prospective study population of biopsy-naïve men. To increase the effectiveness in cases of limited MRI capacity, we show that use of the Rotterdam Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator-3 for pre-MRI risk stratification could avoid more than one-third of MRI examinations. After prostate MRI, use of either the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score or a risk model including MRI outcome as a variable could avoid six out of ten prostate biopsies while maintaining high sensitivity. However, implementation in health care systems requires due consideration of the access to and quality of diagnostic resources, as well as cost-effectiveness.
We evaluated the European Association of Urology risk-based strategy for early prostate cancer detection. Risk assessment before magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a risk calculator or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density could reduce MRI demands and overdiagnosis of insignificant cancers. Risk assessment using prostate MRI results could avoid 60% of prostate biopsies while maintaining prostate cancer detection rates.The European Association of Urology (EAU) recently published its current position and recommendations on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing . On the basis of the literature and expert opinion, a risk-based algorithm for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) was proposed. The guideline recommends stratifying men with PSA ≥3 ng/ml as either "low risk", for whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be avoided, or "intermediate and high risk", for whom prostate MRI should be performed as a basis for further diagnostic decisions. Strategies must be developed to use health care resources efficiently and to reduce unnecessary morbidity, anxiety, and costs of diagnostics. However, any paradigm shift inevitably leads to a paucity of research data. As a result, there is still debate regarding which men can safely avoid an initial MRI but are subjected to clinical follow-up, and which men must undergo an immediate MRI. The authors proposed four methods for risk assessment: (1) family history; (2) PSA velocity; (3) PSA density; and (4) risk calculators. It must be stressed that the availability and quality of prostate MRI in each situation should be considered when using these pre-MRI risk assessment tools. We discuss in brief the proposed risk assessment methods including MRI and assess potential outcomes in a contemporary population.
European urology open science. 2022 Jul 11*** epublish ***
Bas Israël, Gerjon Hannink, Jelle O Barentsz, Marloes M G van der Leest
Department of Medical Imaging, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Department of Operating Rooms, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.