Magnetic Resonance-Guided Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy With Daily Online Plan Adaptation: Results of a Prospective Phase 1 Trial and Supplemental Cohort.

Stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR)-guided adaptive radiation therapy (SMART) for prostate cancer allows for MR-based contouring, real-time MR motion management, and daily plan adaptation. The clinical and dosimetric benefits associated with prostate SMART remain largely unknown.

A phase 1 trial of prostate SMART was conducted with primary endpoints of safety and feasibility. An additional cohort of patients similarly treated with prostate SMART were included in the analysis. SMART was delivered to 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions to the prostate ± seminal vesicles using the MRIdian linear accelerator system (ViewRay, Inc). Rates of urinary and gastrointestinal toxic effects and patient-reported outcome measures were assessed. Dosimetric analyses were conducted to evaluate the specific benefits of daily plan adaptation.

The cohort included 22 patients (n = 10 phase 1, n = 12 supplemental) treated in 110 fractions. Median follow-up was 7.9 months. Acute grade 2 urinary and gastrointestinal toxic effects were observed in 22.7% and 4.5%, respectively, and 4.5% and 0%, respectively, at last follow-up. No grade 3+ events were observed. Expanded Prostate Cancer Index-26 urinary obstructive scores decreased during SMART (mean, 9.3 points; P = .03) and returned to baseline by 3 months. No other significant changes in patient-reported outcome measures were observed. One-hundred percent of fractions required plan adaptation owing to exceeding organ-at-risk metrics (68%) or suboptimal target coverage (33%) resulting from anatomic changes. Minimum acceptable planning target volume, rectal, bladder, and urethra/bladder neck metrics were violated in 24%, 20%, 24%, and 33% of predicted plans, respectively; 0% of reoptimized plans violated metrics. Underlying causes for deficient dosimetry before reoptimization included changes in bladder filling, seminal vesicle position, prostate volume (median 4.7% increase by fraction 3; range, 0%-56%), and hotspots shifting into urethra/bladder neck.

Prostate SMART results in low risk of acute toxic effects with improvements in target and organ-at-risk dosimetry. The clinical benefits resulting from daily plan adaptation, including urethra/bladder neck protection, warrant further investigation.

Advances in radiation oncology. 2022 Mar 06*** epublish ***

Jonathan E Leeman, Daniel N Cagney, Raymond H Mak, Mai Anh Huynh, Shyam K Tanguturi, Lisa Singer, Paul Catalano, Neil E Martin, Anthony V D'Amico, Kent W Mouw, Paul L Nguyen, Martin T King, Zhaohui Han, Christopher Williams, Elizabeth Huynh

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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