Androgen receptor axis-targeted therapies (ARATs; androgen receptor or androgen synthesis inhibitors) have been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCSPC and mCRPC) on the basis of improved overall survival (OS) in randomized clinical trials. However, it is not clear whether the OS for patients after progression on first-line ARAT differs if the first ARAT was administered in the mCSPC versus mCRPC setting and what its estimates are. We assessed the OS after disease progression on ARAT given as first-line therapy in mCSPC versus mCRPC. Patient-level data were collected retrospectively, and only those treated with first-line ARAT for mCSPC or mCRPC were included. For patients receiving ARAT in the mCRPC setting, no prior ARAT was allowed in the mCSPC setting. The median OS and hazard ratio (HR) were determined via Kaplan-Meier analysis from the time of progression on ARAT. Of 382 patients treated with first-line ARAT, 172 (44 mCSPC and 128 mCRPC) had experienced disease progression and were included in the analysis. Median OS was similar in the mCSPC (23 mo) and mCRPC (17 mo) settings (HR 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.62-1.56; p = 0.95). A total of 138 patients received subsequent systemic therapy after progression. Our results suggest that median OS is similar after progression on one ARAT, whether given in the first-line mCSPC or first-line mCRPC setting, and is estimated to be <2 yr. These data have implications for patient prognostication and the design of clinical trials in the post-ARAT setting for further drug development. PATIENT SUMMARY: We investigated whether the survival benefit differs between metastatic castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer for patients who have already experienced cancer progression after first-line treatment with one drug targeting the androgen receptor pathway (called ARAT). We found that the median survival benefit was less than 2 years and was similar for the two groups.
European urology focus. 2022 Jul 11 [Epub ahead of print]
Nicolas Sayegh, Nishita Tripathi, Roberto H Nussenzveig, Vinay Mathew Thomas, Clara Tandar, Divyam Goel, Blake Nordblad, Kamal Kant Sahu, Haoran Li, Benjamin L Maughan, Neeraj Agarwal, Umang Swami
Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah Health Care, Salt Lake City, UT, USA., Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah Health Care, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Electronic address: ., Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah Health Care, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Electronic address: .