Prostate MRI in Stereotactic Body Radiation Treatment Planning and Delivery for Localized Prostate Cancer.

Prostate MRI is increasingly being used to make diagnoses and guide management for patients receiving definitive radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Radiologists should be familiar with the potential uses of prostate MRI in radiation therapy planning and delivery. Radiation therapy is an established option for the definitive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an external-beam radiation therapy method used to deliver a high dose of radiation to an extracranial target in the body, often in five or fewer fractions. SBRT is increasingly being used for prostate cancer treatment and has been recognized by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network as an acceptable definitive treatment regimen for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer. MRI is commonly used to aid in prostate radiation therapy. The authors review the uses of prostate MRI in SBRT treatment planning and delivery. Specific topics discussed include the use of prostate MRI for identification of and dose reduction to the membranous and prostatic urethra, which can decrease the risk of acute and late toxicities. MRI is also useful for identification and appropriate dose coverage of the prostate apex and areas of extraprostatic extension or seminal vesicle invasion. In prospective studies, prostate MRI is being validated for identification of and dose intensification to dominant intraprostatic lesions, which potentially can improve oncologic outcomes. It also can be used to evaluate the placement of fiducial markers and hydrogel spacers for radiation therapy planning and delivery. ©RSNA, 2022.

Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 2022 Jun 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Zack Nigogosyan, Joseph E Ippolito, Sean P Collins, Edina C Wang

From the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (Z.N., J.E.I.); and Department of Radiation Medicine, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, 3800 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007 (S.P.C., E.C.W.).

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