Combination of biparametric magnetic resonance imaging with prostate-specific antigen density to stratify the risk of significant prostate cancer: Initial biopsy and long-term follow-up results.

To assess whether the combination of biparametric magnetic resonance imaging with prostate-specific antigen density can properly stratify the risk of significant prostate cancer in patients undergoing prostate biopsies and how this approach affects the detection of prostate cancer during follow-up in patients who do not undergo prostate biopsy.

In total, 411 biopsy-naïve patients who had elevated prostate-specific antigen levels and then underwent biparametric magnetic resonance imaging for suspicious prostate cancer were analyzed: 203 patients underwent prostate biopsies, whereas 208 patients did not. Significant prostate cancer detection rates stratified by the combination of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score and prostate-specific antigen density were assessed in patients who underwent prostate biopsies. The cumulative incidence of prostate cancer detection during the follow-up was assessed in patients who omitted biopsy.

The negative predictive value for significant prostate cancer was 89% for Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System scores 1-3, which increased to 97% when prostate-specific antigen density <0.15 ng/ml/cm3 was combined. Among patients who did not undergo biopsy, patients with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System scores 1-3 plus prostate-specific antigen density <0.15 ng/ml/cm3 included significantly less cases in which significant prostate cancer was detected during the follow-up, compared with the others (3.2% versus 17% at 36 months).

Restriction of prostate biopsies to patients with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System scores 4-5 or prostate-specific antigen density ≥0.15 ng/ml/cm3 proved to be the good biopsy strategy, effectively balancing risks and benefits.

International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. 2022 Jun 13 [Epub ahead of print]

Tsuzumi Konishi, Satoshi Washino, Tomohisa Okochi, Tomoaki Miyagawa

Departments of Urology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan., Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

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