Statins and metformin are commonly prescribed for patients, including those with prostate cancer. Preclinical and epidemiologic studies of each agent have suggested anti-cancer properties.
Patient data from three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III studies evaluating enzalutamide (AFFIRM, PREVAIL and PROSPER) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer were included in this analysis. This post hoc, retrospective study examined the association of statin and metformin on radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), toxicity and overall survival (OS). After adjusting for available clinical prognostic variables, multivariate analyses were performed on pooled data from AFFIRM and PREVAIL, all three trials pooled, and each trial individually, to assess differential efficacy in these end-points associated with the baseline use of these medications.
In the multivariate analysis of the individual trials, OS and rPFS/MFS were not significantly influenced by statin or metformin use in AFFIRM or PROSPER. However, in PREVAIL, OS was significantly influenced by statin (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.89) and rPFS was significantly influenced by metformin (HR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.34-0.70). In pooled analyses, improved OS was significantly associated with statin use but not metformin use for AFFIRM+PREVAIL trials (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72-0.96) and AFFIRM+PREVAIL+PROSPER (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.66-0.85).
The association between statin or metformin use and rPFS, MFS and OS was inconsistent across three trials. Analyses of all three trials pooled and AFFIRM+PREVAIL pooled revealed that statin but not metformin use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of death in enzalutamide-treated patients. Additional prospective, controlled studies are warranted.
AFFIRM (NCT00974311), PREVAIL (NCT01212991) and PROSPER (NCT02003924).
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2022 May 25 [Epub ahead of print]
Anthony M Joshua, Andrew Armstrong, Megan Crumbaker, Howard I Scher, Johann de Bono, Bertrand Tombal, Maha Hussain, Cora N Sternberg, Silke Gillessen, Joan Carles, Karim Fizazi, Ping Lin, William Duggan, Jennifer Sugg, David Russell, Tomasz M Beer
Kinghorn Cancer Centre, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: ., Duke Cancer Institute Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA., Kinghorn Cancer Centre, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia., Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA., The Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK., Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium., Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA., Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA., Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, EOC, Bellinzona, Switzerland., Vall D'Hebron University Hospital, Vall D'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Barcelona, Spain., Institut Gustave Roussy, University of Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France., Formerly of Pfizer Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA., Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT, USA., Astellas Pharma, Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA., Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA., OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.