Considering the socioeconomic disparities and inequalities observed in the healthcare resources among the Brazilian regions, we aimed to analyze the mortality trends of urological cancers in Brazil to identify areas with differential risks.
Deaths related to prostate (PCa), bladder (BCa), kidney (KC), penile (PeC), and testis (TCa) cancers from 1996 to 2019 were retrieved from the Mortality Information System database (Brazil). Geographic and temporal patterns were analyzed using age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs). A joinpoint regression model was used to identify changes in the trends and calculate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) for each region.
In Brazil, the ASMRs (per 100,000 persons/year) were 11.76 for PCa; 1.37, BCa; 1.13, KC; 0.33, and PeC; 0.26, TCa over the period. Increasing mortality trends were registered for BCa (AAPC = 0.45 in men; 0.57 in women), KC (AAPC = 2.03 in men), PeC (AAPC = 1.01), and TCa (AAPC = 2.06). The PCa mortality presented a significant reduction after 2006. The Northeast and North regions showed the highest increases in the PCa mortality. The South registered the highest ASMRs for BCa and KC, but the highest increasing trends occurred in the men from the Northeast. The North presented the highest ASMR for PeC, while the South registered the highest ASMR for TCa.
Differences among regions may be partly explained by disparities in the healthcare systems. Over the study period, the North and Northeast regions presented more discrepant mortality rates. Efforts should be made to ensure access to the healthcare resources for people at risk, particularly in these regions.
Journal of epidemiology and global health. 2022 May 31 [Epub ahead of print]
Thiago Camelo Mourão, Maria Paula Curado, Renato Almeida Rosa de Oliveira, Thiago Borges Marques Santana, Ricardo de Lima Favaretto, Gustavo Cardoso Guimarães
Department of Uro-Oncology, BP-A Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. ., Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, International Research Center, ACCamargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil., Department of Uro-Oncology, BP-A Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil., Surgical Oncology Department, BP-A Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.