The Impact of Lifestyle on Prostate Cancer: A Road to the Discovery of New Biomarkers.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers among men, and its incidence has been rising through the years. Several risk factors have been associated with this disease and unhealthy lifestyles and inflammation were appointed as major contributors for PCa development, progression, and severity. Despite the advantages associated with the currently used diagnostic tools [prostate-specific antigen(PSA) serum levels and digital rectal examination (DRE)], the development of effective approaches for PCa diagnosis is still necessary. Finding lifestyle-associated proteins that may predict the development of PCa seems to be a promising strategy to improve PCa diagnosis. In this context, several biomarkers have been identified, including circulating biomarkers (CRP, insulin, C-peptide, TNFα-R2, adiponectin, IL-6, total PSA, free PSA, and p2PSA), urine biomarkers (PCA3, guanidine, phenylacetylglycine, and glycine), proteins expressed in exosomes (afamin, vitamin D-binding protein, and filamin A), and miRNAs expressed in prostate tissue (miRNA-21, miRNA-101, and miRNA-182). In conclusion, exploring the impact of lifestyle and inflammation on PCa development and progression may open doors to the identification of new biomarkers. The discovery of new PCa diagnostic biomarkers should contribute to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment.

Journal of clinical medicine. 2022 May 22*** epublish ***

Catarina Leitão, Bárbara Matos, Fátima Roque, Maria Teresa Herdeiro, Margarida Fardilha

Department of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedicine (iBiMED), University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal., Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group, IPO Porto Research Center (CI-IPOP), Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto (IPO Porto), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal., Research Unit for Inland Development, Polytechnic of Guarda (UDI-IPG), Avenida Doutor Francisco Sá Carneiro, 6300-559 Guarda, Portugal., Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Department of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedicine-iBiMED, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

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