Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer treatment is associated with adverse physiological changes; however, exercise can improve outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine exercise intervention adherence and its effects on physiological outcomes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Uniquely, this review incorporated a meta-aggregation of qualitative data, providing perspectives from the men's experiences. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed following PRISMA guidelines. Databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed) were searched for studies using "prostate cancer", "exercise intervention", and "androgen deprivation therapy". Quantitative randomised controlled trials describing adherence to exercise interventions were selected, with qualitative articles selected based on descriptions of experiences around participation. Subgroup meta-analyses of adherence, exercise mode, and intervention duration were completed for quality of life, aerobic fitness, fatigue, and strength. In total, 644 articles were identified, with 29 (n = 23 quantitative; n = 6 qualitative) articles from 25 studies included. Exercise had no effects (p < 0.05) on quality of life and fatigue. Significant effects (all p < 0.05) were observed for aerobic fitness, and upper- and lower-body strength. Adherence to exercise-based interventions was 80.38%, with improvements observed in aerobic fitness and strength. Subgroup analysis revealed exercise adherence impacted fatigue and strength, with greater improvements observed in programs >12-weeks.
Cancers. 2022 May 16*** epublish ***
Kellie Toohey, Maddison Hunter, Catherine Paterson, Reza Mortazavi, Benjamin Singh
Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia., Allied Health and Human Performance, University of South Australia City East Campus, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.