Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is considered neither sensitive nor specific for prostate cancer (PCa). We aimed to compare total PSA (tPSA), percentage of free PSA (%fPSA), the PSA density (PSAD), Prostate Health Index (PHI), and the PHI density (PHID) to see which one could best predict clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa): a potentially lethal disease.
A total of 412 men with PSA of 2-20 ng/mL were prospectively included. Serum biomarkers for PCa was collected before transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. PHI was calculated by the formula: (p2PSA/fPSA) x √tPSA. PHID was calculated as PHI divided by prostate volume measured by transrectal ultrasound.
Of the 412 men, 134 (32.5%) and 94(22.8%) were diagnosed with PCa and csPCa, respectively. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and decision curve analyses (DCA) to compare the performance of PSA related parameters, PHI and PHID in diagnosing csPCa. AUC for tPSA, %fPSA, %p2PSA, PSAD, PHI and PHID were 0.56、0.63、0.76、0.74、0.77 and 0.82 respectively for csPCa detection. In the univariate analysis, the prostate volume, tPSA, %fPSA, %p2PSA, PHI, PSAD, and PHID were all significantly associated with csPCa, and PHID was the most important predictor (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.15-1.72). Besides, The AUC of PHID was significantly larger than PHI in csPCa diagnosis (p=0.004). At 90% sensitivity, PHID had the highest specificity (54.1%) for csPCa and could reduce the most unnecessary biopsies (43.7%) and miss the fewest csPCa (8.5%) when PHID ≥ 0.67. In addition to AUC, DCA re-confirmed the clinical benefit of PHID over all PSA-related parameters and PHI in csPCa diagnosis. The PHID cut-off value was positively correlated with the csPCa ratio in the PHID risk table, which is useful for evaluating csPCa risk in a clinical setting.
The PHID is an excellent predictor of csPCa. The PHID risk table may be used in standard clinical practice to pre-select men at the highest risk of harboring csPCa.
Frontiers in oncology. 2021 Nov 19*** epublish ***
Shih-Ting Chiu, Yung-Ting Cheng, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Yu-Chuan Lu, Jian-Hua Hong, Shiu-Dong Chung, Chih-Hung Chiang, Chao-Yuan Huang
Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan., Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan.