Dual-tracer PET/CT-targeted, mpMRI-targeted, systematic biopsy, and combined biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a pilot study.

Growing evidence proved the efficacy of multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided targeted biopsy (TB) in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis, but there is no direct comparison between mpMRI-TB and PSMA PET/CT-TB. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is highly expressed in PCa, which can compensate for the unstable expression of PSMA in PCa. Therefore, we designed a study to compare the efficiency of mpMRI-TB, dual-tracer (GRPR and PSMA) PET/CT-TB, systematic biopsy, and combined biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

One hundred twelve suspicious PCa patients were enrolled from September 2020 to June 2021. Patients with anyone of positive dual-tracer PET/CT or mpMRI underwent TB, and all enrolled patients underwent systematic biopsy (SB) after TB. The primary outcome was the detection rates of PCa in different biopsy strategies. Secondary outcomes were the performance of three imaging methods, omission diagnostic rates, and upgrading and downgrading of biopsy samples relative to those of prostatectomy specimens in different biopsy strategies. McNemar's tests and Bonferroni correction in multiple comparisons were used to compare the primary and secondary outcomes.

In 112 men, clinically significant PCa (grade group[GG] ≥ 2) accounted for 34.82% (39/112), and nonclinically significant PCa (GG = 1) accounted for 4.46% (5/112). 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT-TB achieved higher PCa detection rate (69.77%) and positive ratio of biopsy cores (0.44) compared with SB (39.29% and 0.12) and mpMRI-TB (36.14% and 0.23), respectively (P < 0.005). Dual-tracer PET/CT screen out patients for avoiding 52.67% (59/112) unnecessary biopsy, whereas dual-tracer PET/CT-TB plus SB achieved high detection rate (77.36%) without misdiagnosis of csPCa.

Dual-tracer PET/CT might screen patients for avoiding unnecessary biopsy. Dual-tracer PET/CT-TB plus SB might be a more effective and promising strategy for the definite diagnosis of clinically significant PCa than mpMRI-TB.

European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2021 Dec 03 [Epub ahead of print]

Dong-Xu Qiu, Jian Li, Jin-Wei Zhang, Min-Feng Chen, Xiao-Mei Gao, Yong-Xiang Tang, Ye Zhang, Xiao-Ping Yi, Hong-Ling Yin, Yu Gan, Gui-Lin Wang, Xiong-Bing Zu, Shuo Hu, Yi Cai

Department of Urology, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China., Department of PET Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China., Department of Radiology, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China., Department of Pathology, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China., Department of Oncology, NHC Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China., Department of PET Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China. ., Department of Urology, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China. .

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