Prostate cancer risk stratification via non-destructive 3D pathology with deep learning-assisted gland analysis.

Prostate cancer treatment planning is largely dependent upon examination of core-needle biopsies. The microscopic architecture of the prostate glands forms the basis for prognostic grading by pathologists. Interpretation of these convoluted 3D glandular structures via visual inspection of a limited number of 2D histology sections is often unreliable, which contributes to the under- and over-treatment of patients. To improve risk assessment and treatment decisions, we have developed a workflow for non-destructive 3D pathology and computational analysis of whole prostate biopsies labeled with a rapid and inexpensive fluorescent analog of standard H&E staining. This analysis is based on interpretable glandular features and is facilitated by the development of image-translation-assisted segmentation in 3D (ITAS3D). ITAS3D is a generalizable deep-learning-based strategy that enables tissue microstructures to be volumetrically segmented in an annotation-free and objective (biomarker-based) manner without requiring immunolabeling. As a preliminary demonstration of the translational value of a computational 3D vs. a computational 2D pathology approach, we imaged 300 ex vivo biopsies extracted from 50 archived radical prostatectomy specimens, of which 118 biopsies contained cancer. The 3D glandular features in cancer biopsies were superior to corresponding 2D features for risk stratification of low- to intermediate-risk PCa patients based on their clinical biochemical recurrence (BCR) outcomes. The results of this study support the use of computational 3D pathology for guiding the clinical management of prostate cancer.

Cancer research. 2021 Dec 01 [Epub ahead of print]

Weisi Xie, Nicholas P Reder, Can F Koyuncu, Patrick Leo, Sarah Hawley, Hongyi Huang, Chenyi Mao, Nadia Postupna, Soyoung Kang, Robert Serafin, Gan Gao, Qinghua Han, Kevin W Bishop, Lindsey A Barner, Pingfu Fu, Jonathan L Wright, C Dirk Keene, Joshua C Vaughan, Andrew Janowczyk, Adam K Glaser, Anant Madabhushi, Lawrence D True, Jonathan Tc Liu

Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington., 3Department of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine., Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University., Canary Foundation., University of Washington., Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine., Dept of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University., Urology, University of Washington., Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington., Department of Pathology, University of Washington., Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington .

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