177Lu-PSMA-617 versus docetaxel in chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomized, controlled, phase 2 non-inferiority trial.

Lutetium-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen-617 (177Lu-PSMA-617) in end-stage metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has reported favourable outcomes. In this study, we aimed to prospectively compare the efficacy and safety of 177Lu-PSMA-617 and docetaxel in chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC patients.

This was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label, phase 2, and non-inferiority trial. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with mCRPC and high PSMA-expressing lesions on 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT were randomly assigned in 1:1 ratio to 177Lu-PSMA-617 (6.0-7.4 GBq/cycle, every 8 weeks, up to 4 cycles) or docetaxel (75 mg/m2/cycle, every 3 weeks, up to 10 cycles). The primary end-point was best prostate-specific antigen response rate (PSA-RR), defined according to Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group-3 as proportion of patients achieving ≥ 50% decline in PSA from baseline. Non-inferiority margin of - 15% was pre-specified for PSA-RR.

Between December 2019 and March 2021, 40 of the 45 patients assessed for eligibility underwent randomization. Fifteen of 20 patients in 177Lu-PSMA-617 arm and 20/20 patients in docetaxel arm received treatment per protocol. Of these, best PSA-RR in the 177Lu-PSMA-617 arm was 60% (9/15) versus 40% (8/20) in the docetaxel arm. The difference in the PSA-RRs between the two arms was 20% (95% confidence interval, CI: - 12-47, P = 0.25), meeting the pre-specified criterion for non-inferiority in per-protocol analysis. Further, progression-free survival rates at 6 months were 30% and 20% in the 177Lu-PSMA-617 and docetaxel arms respectively (difference 10%, 95% CI: - 18-38, P = 0.50). Overall, treatment-emergent grade ≥ 3 adverse events occurred less frequently with 177Lu-PSMA-617 than with docetaxel (6/20, 30% versus 10/20, 50%, respectively, P = 0.20). Quality-of-life outcomes improved significantly in 177Lu-PSMA-617 arm compared to docetaxel arm (P < 0.01).

177Lu-PSMA-617 was demonstrated to be safe and non-inferior to docetaxel in the treatment of mCRPC and could, thus, be potentially employed earlier in the disease course rather than being solely reserved for advanced end-stage disease.

Clinical Trials Registry-India, CTRI/2019/12/022282.

European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2021 Nov 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Swayamjeet Satapathy, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Ashwani Sood, Chandan Krushna Das, Ravimohan Suryanarayan Mavuduru, Shikha Goyal, Jaya Shukla, Shrawan Kumar Singh

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India. ., Medical Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India., Department of Urology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India., Department of Radiotherapy, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

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