Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Detection After A Negative Prebiopsy MRI Examination: Comparison of Biparametric Versus Multiparametric MRI.

Background: The frequency of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) following negative biparametric MRI (bpMRI) and multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) has not been well investigated in direct comparative studies. Objective: To compare the frequency of csPCa after negative prebiopsy bpMRI and mpMRI, and to evaluate factors that predict csPca in the two cohorts. Methods: This retrospective study included 232 men (mean age, 64.5 years) with negative bpMRI from August 2017 to March 2020 and193 men (mean age, 69.0 years) with negative mpMRI from January 2018 to December 2018, defining PI-RADS category of 1 or 2 as negative. Our institution offers bpMRI as a low-cost self-pay option for patients without insurer coverage of prebiospy mpMRI. Patient characteristics and subsequent biopsy results were recorded. csPCa was defined as Gleason score ≥3+4. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of csPCa. AUC of prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) for csPCA was computed, and diagnostic performance of PSAD was assessed at a clinically established threshold of 0.15 ng/mL2. Results: Systematic biopsy was performed after negative bpMRI in 41.4% (96/232), versus after negative mpMRI in 30.5% (59/193) (p=.02). Among those undergoing biopsy, csPCa was present in 15.6% (15/96) in the mpMRI cohort versus 13.6% (8/59) in the bpMRI cohort (p=.69). NPV for csPCa was 84% (81/96) for bpMRI and 86% (51/59) for mpMRI. In multivariable analyses, independent predictors of csPCa included smaller prostate volume (OR=0.27, p<.001) and greater PSAD (OR=3.09, p<.001). In multivariable models, bpMRI (compared with mpMRI) did not independently predict csPCa (p>.05). PSAD had AUC for csPCa of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.89) in the bpMRI cohort versus 0.68 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.93) in the mpMRI cohort. For detecting csPCa, PSAD threshold of 0.15 ng/mL2 had NPV of 90% and PPV of 28%, in the bpMRI cohort, versus NPV of 92% and PPV of 44%in the mpMRI cohort. Conclusion: The frequency of csPCa was not significantly different on systematic biopsy performed after negative bpMRI and mpMRI examinations. PSAD had similar diagnostic utility for csPca in both cohorts. Clinical Impact: Either bpMRI or mpMRI, in combination with PSAD, can help avoid negative prostate biopsies.

AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 2021 Nov 24 [Epub ahead of print]

Jonathan M Gan, Elias George Kikano, Daniel A Smith, Sanjay Rao, Ruchika Podury, Margaret Wang, Jared C Durieux, Raj Mohan Paspulati, Lee Ponsky, Nikhil H Ramaiya, Sree Harsha Tirumani

Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA., UHC Center for Clinical Research, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA., Urology Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

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