Can Pre-treatment Quantitative Multi-parametric MRI Predict the Outcome of Radiotherapy in Patients with Prostate Cancer?

To investigate whether pre-treatment quantitative multiparametric MRI can predict biochemical outcome of prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with primary radiotherapy (RT).

Fifty-one patients with biopsy confirmed PCa underwent prostate multiparametric MRI on 3T MR scanner prior to RT. Thirty-seven men (73%) were treated with external beam RT alone, 12 men (24%) were treated with brachytherapy monotherapy, and two men (4%) were treated with external beam RT with brachytherapy boost. The index lesion was outlined by a radiologist and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2 and DCE parameters were measured. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix criteria.

After a median follow-up of 65 months, seven patients had biochemical failure. ADC had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71 for predicting RT outcome with significantly lower ADC (0.78 ± 0.17 vs 0.96 ± 0.26 µm2/ms, p = 0.04) of the index lesion in men with biochemical failure. Ideal ADC cutoff point (Youdens index) was 0.96 µm2/ms which had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 48% for predicting biochemical failure. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower ADC values were associated with significantly lower freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF, p = 0.03, no failures out of 20 men if ADC ≥ 0.96 µm2/ms; seven of 31 with failures if ADC < 0.96 µm2/ms). On multivariable analysis, ADC was associated with FFBF (HR 0.96 per increase in ADC of 0.01 um2/ms [95% CI, 0.92-1.00]; p = 0.042) after accounting for National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category (p = 0.064) and receipt of androgen deprivation therapy (p = 0.141). Quantitative T2 and DCE parameters were not associated with biochemical outcome.

Our results suggest that quantitative ADC values of the index lesion may predict biochemical failure following primary radiotherapy in patients with PCa. Lower ADC values were associated with inferior biochemical control.

Academic radiology. 2021 Oct 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Aritrick Chatterjee, William Tyler Turchan, Xiaobing Fan, Alexander Griffin, Ambereen Yousuf, Gregory S Karczmar, Stanley L Liauw, Aytekin Oto

Department of Radiology (A.C., X.F., A.G., A.Y., G.S.K., A.O.), University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637; Sanford J. Grossman Center of Excellence in Prostate Imaging and Image Guided Therapy (A.C., A.Y., G.S.K., A.O.), University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology (W.T.T., S.L.L.), University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois., Department of Radiology (A.C., X.F., A.G., A.Y., G.S.K., A.O.), University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637; Sanford J. Grossman Center of Excellence in Prostate Imaging and Image Guided Therapy (A.C., A.Y., G.S.K., A.O.), University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology (W.T.T., S.L.L.), University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address: .

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