Active surveillance outcomes in minority patients are poorly characterized, as most surveillance series are comprised primarily of Caucasian men. We aimed to characterize outcomes of African American and Hispanic men undergoing surveillance and to identify factors associated with transition to definitive treatment.
We performed a retrospective analysis of men undergoing active surveillance at our institution. Reasons for transition to definitive treatment were determined. Cessation of active surveillance was recommended for Gleason upgrading on surveillance biopsy. We characterized treatment-free survival for men on surveillance and compared this by race/ethnicity (as self reported by patients). Demographic and clinical variables associated with active surveillance cessation were identified using Cox proportional hazards regression.
A total of 141 men were on active surveillance: 84 non-Hispanic Black/African American (59.6%), 32 Hispanic (22.7%), and 25 non-Hispanic White/Caucasian (17.7%). Two-year treatment-free survival for Caucasian, Black and Hispanic patients was 81.2%, 54.4%, and 75.0%, respectively. Pairwise Cox proportional hazards analysis showed significantly decreased treatment-free survival in Black compared to Caucasian men (HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.03-5.68). In African American men, cessation of active surveillance occurred most commonly due to grade reclassification at the time of confirmatory biopsy.
Among our active surveillance cohort composed primarily of racial and ethnic minorities, we identified relatively high rates of progression to definitive treatment. African American race was associated with surveillance cessation on univariate analysis. These findings stress the importance of confirmatory biopsy and strict compliance with surveillance protocols in AA men to ensure timely detection of disease reclassification.
Urologic oncology. 2021 Aug 13 [Epub ahead of print]
Laura C Kidd, Matthew Loecher, Nahrin Ahmed, Joseph Terzian, Jun Song, Adam C Reese
Department of Urology, The Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA., Department of Urology, The Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address: .