Role of multiparametric MRI in long-term surveillance following focal laser ablation of prostate cancer.

Determine the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) appearance of the prostate following focal laser ablation (FLA) for PCa and to identify imaging characteristics associated with recurrent disease.

Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent FLA for low-intermediate risk PCa between 2010 and 2014 was performed. Early (median 4 months) and late mpMRI (median 49 months) follow-up were qualitatively assessed for T2-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) appearances and also compared to corresponding PSA values and biopsy results.

55 cancers were treated in 54 men (mean age 61.0 years). Early mpMRI was performed in 30 (54.5%) patients while late follow-up mpMRI in 42 (84%). Ill-defined scarring with and without atrophy at the treatment site were the most common appearances. In patients with paired MRI and biopsy, one of four patients with clinically significant PCa on biopsy (≥GG2 or≥6 mm GG1) showed hyperenhancement or restricted diffusion at early follow-up. At late follow-up, positive biopsies were seen in 5/8 (63%) cases with hyperenhancement and 5/6 (83%) cases with restricted diffusion at the treatment site. PSA change was not associated with biopsy results at either time point.

mpMRI is able to document the morphological and temporal changes following focal therapy. It has limited ability to detect recurrent disease in early months following treatment. Late-term mpMRI is sensitive at identifying patients with recurrent disease. Small sample size is, however, a limitation of the study.

Implementing MRI in follow-up after FT may be useful in predicting residual or recurrent PCa and therefore provide reliable outcome data.

The British journal of radiology. 2021 Jul 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Mark Paxton, Eitan Barbalat, Nathan Perlis, Ravi J Menezes, Mark Gertner, David Dragas, Masoom A Haider, Antonio Finelli, John Trachtenberg, Sangeet Ghai

Joint Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, University Health Network - Mount Sinai Hospital - Women's College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada., Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Toronto, Division of Urology, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.