While radical prostatectomy (RP) plays a prominent role in the management of localized prostate cancer, its role in high risk or metastatic disease is less clear. Due to changes in prostate cancer screening patterns, particularly those made by the United States Preventive Services Task Force, data is suggesting increasing incidences of high risk and metastatic disease, underlying the importance of continued research in this area. While past approaches to management may have discouraged surgical intervention, more contemporary approaches have attempted to evaluate its effectiveness and utility. The purpose of this review is an updated discussion of the current literature regarding surgical approaches to high risk prostate cancer. The PubMed and Medline databases were queried for English language articles related to the surgical management of high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. In this review, we examine the utility of surgery as a single or multimodal approach to management with patients with high risk, locally advanced, and metastatic prostate cancer. Outcomes measures are reviewed including data on survival and recurrence rates. Functional outcomes are an important consideration in prostate cancer management and while data is more limited, this review examines some of the key findings. Finally, a discussion regarding surgical complication rates and ongoing clinical trials is addressed. While surgery appears to be promising in this patient cohort, there remains significant heterogeneity in the data that ongoing trials may be able to address. At its current level of understanding, surgery should be considered as a potential tool in patient management, but may play a more prominent role in a multi-modality setting for optimal outcomes.
Translational andrology and urology. 2021 May [Epub]
Barrett Z McCormick, Lisly Chery, Brian F Chapin
Department of Urology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.