Signs of disease progression (28%) and conversion to active treatment without evidence of disease progression (13%) are the main reasons for discontinuation of active surveillance (AS) in men with localised prostate cancer (PCa). We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict disease progression in these patients.
As a first step in the development of a nomogram, using data from Movembers' GAP3 Consortium (n=14,380), we assessed heterogeneity between centres in terms of risk of disease progression. We started with assessment of baseline hazards for disease progression based on grouping of centres according to follow-up protocols [high: yearly; intermediate: ~2 yearly; and low: at year 1, 4 & 7 (i.e., PRIAS)]. We conducted cause-specific random effect Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate risk of disease progression by centre in each group.
Disease progression rates varied substantially between centres [median hazard ratio (MHR): 2.5]. After adjustment for various clinical factors (age, year of diagnosis, Gleason grade group, number of positive cores and PSA), substantial heterogeneity in disease progression remained between centres.
When combining worldwide data on AS, we noted unexplained differences of disease progression rate even after adjustment for various clinical factors. This suggests that when developing a global nomogram, local adjustments for differences in risk of disease progression and competing outcomes such as conversion to active treatment need to be considered.
Translational andrology and urology. 2021 Mar [Epub]
Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Xinge Ji, Jozien Helleman, Monique J Roobol, Daan Nieboer, Chris Bangma, Mark Frydenberg, Antti Rannikko, Lui Shiong Lee, Vincent Gnanapragasam, Michael W Kattan, Movember Foundation’s Global Action Plan Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance (GAP3) Consortium*
Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, UK., Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA., Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands., Cabrini Institute, Malvern, Australia., Department of Urology, Helsinki University and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland., Department of Urology, Sengkang General Hospital and Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore., Academic Urology Group, Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.