Comparison of machine learning algorithms to predict clinically significant prostate cancer of the peripheral zone with multiparametric MRI using clinical assessment categories and radiomic features.

To analyze the performance of radiological assessment categories and quantitative computational analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps using variant machine learning algorithms to differentiate clinically significant versus insignificant prostate cancer (PCa).

Retrospectively, 73 patients were included in the study. The patients (mean age, 66.3 ± 7.6 years) were examined with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) prior to radical prostatectomy (n = 33) or targeted biopsy (n = 40). The index lesion was annotated in MRI ADC and the equivalent histologic slides according to the highest Gleason Grade Group (GrG). Volumes of interest (VOIs) were determined for each lesion and normal-appearing peripheral zone. VOIs were processed by radiomic analysis. For the classification of lesions according to their clinical significance (GrG ≥ 3), principal component (PC) analysis, univariate analysis (UA) with consecutive support vector machines, neural networks, and random forest analysis were performed.

PC analysis discriminated between benign and malignant prostate tissue. PC evaluation yielded no stratification of PCa lesions according to their clinical significance, but UA revealed differences in clinical assessment categories and radiomic features. We trained three classification models with fifteen feature subsets. We identified a subset of shape features which improved the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical assessment categories (maximum increase in diagnostic accuracy ΔAUC = + 0.05, p < 0.001) while also identifying combinations of features and models which reduced overall accuracy.

The impact of radiomic features to differentiate PCa lesions according to their clinical significance remains controversial. It depends on feature selection and the employed machine learning algorithms. It can result in improvement or reduction of diagnostic performance.

• Quantitative imaging features differ between normal and malignant tissue of the peripheral zone in prostate cancer. • Radiomic feature analysis of clinical routine multiparametric MRI has the potential to improve the stratification of clinically significant versus insignificant prostate cancer lesions in the peripheral zone. • Certain combinations of standard multiparametric MRI reporting and assessment categories with feature subsets and machine learning algorithms reduced the diagnostic performance over standard clinical assessment categories alone.

European radiology. 2020 Jul 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Simon Bernatz, Jörg Ackermann, Philipp Mandel, Benjamin Kaltenbach, Yauheniya Zhdanovich, Patrick N Harter, Claudia Döring, Renate Hammerstingl, Boris Bodelle, Kevin Smith, Andreas Bucher, Moritz Albrecht, Nicolas Rosbach, Lajos Basten, Ibrahim Yel, Mike Wenzel, Katrin Bankov, Ina Koch, Felix K-H Chun, Jens Köllermann, Peter J Wild, Thomas J Vogl

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ., Department of Molecular Bioinformatics, Institute of Computer Science, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany., Department of Urology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany., Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany., Frankfurt Cancer Institute, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany., Dr. Senckenberg Institute for Pathology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.