There is clinically relevant molecular heterogeneity in prostate cancer (PCa), but this biological diversity has had only a minimal impact on clinical practice. Treatment outcomes in patients with localised PCa are often highly variable, even among patients stratified to the same risk group or disease state based on standard clinical and pathological parameters. In recent years, the development of gene panels has provided valuable data on the differential expression of genes in patients with PCa. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to identify and validate prognostic and predictive biomarkers that can be applied across clinical scenarios, ranging from localised disease to metastatic castration-resistant PCa. The availability of such tools would allow for precision medicine to finally reach PCa patients. In this review, we evaluate current data on molecular biomarkers for PCa, with an emphasis on the biomarkers and gene panels with the most robust evidence to support their application in routine clinical practice.
Cancers. 2020 Jun 12*** epublish ***
Felipe Couñago, Fernando López-Campos, Ana Aurora Díaz-Gavela, Elena Almagro, Esaú Fenández-Pascual, Iván Henríquez, Rebeca Lozano, Estefanía Linares Espinós, Alfonso Gómez-Iturriaga, Guillermo de Velasco, Luis Miguel Quintana Franco, Ignacio Rodríguez-Melcón, José López-Torrecilla, Daniel E Spratt, Luis Leonardo Guerrero, Juan Ignacio Martínez-Salamanca, Elia Del Cerro
Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Quirónsalud Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain., Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain., Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario Quirónsalud Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain., Lyx Institute of Urology, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, 28006 Madrid, Spain., Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Sant Joan, 43204 Reus, Spain., Prostate Cancer Clinical Research Unit, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, 28029 Madrid, Spain., Cruces University Hospital, Biocruces Heath Research Institute, 48903 Barakaldo, Spain., Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, 28041 Madrid, Spain., Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario La Paz, 28046 Madrid, Spain., Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín, 35010 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain., Radiation Oncology-ERESA, Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, 46014 Valencia, Spain., Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.