Pharmacotherapeutic strategies for castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a potentially symptomatic disease with an eventual lethal outcome. Novel pharmaceutical agents are continuously studied with encouraging results in CRPC.

In this perspective, the authors present established and promising pharmacotherapeutic strategies for the management of CRPC; both with and without metastases. Apart from the different treatment strategies, the authors present the relevant sequence of treatment through disease progression.

Usually, docetaxel should be considered the first line treatment in mCRPC. Abiraterone acetate (AA) plus prednisone or enzalutamide (ENZ) could be alternative treatments in chemotherapy naïve patients. Sipuleucel-T has been approved for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC. Ra-223 has been approved for patients with mCRPC with symptomatic bone metastases (not visceral metastases). Cabazitaxel has been approved as the second line treatment to docetaxel in mCRPC. No differences in the overall survival has been observed between sequences starting with docetaxel versus AA/ENZ. Between AA-to-ENZ and ENZ-to-AA sequence, the AA-to-ENZ sequence appeared to be more favorable than the ENZ-to-AA regarding progression-free survival but not overall survival. Carbazitaxel seemed to retain its activity regardless of the treatment sequence. Of note, ENZ and apalutamide have been approved in non-metastatic CRPC.

Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2020 May 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Mohamad Moussa, Athanasios Papatsoris, Mohamed Abou Chakra, Despoina Sryropoulou, Athanasios Dellis

Department of Urology, Al Zahraa Hospital, University Medical Center, Lebanese University , Beirut, Lebanon., 2nd Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sismanoglio Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens , Athens, Greece., Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Patras , Patras, Greece.