Challenges, applications and future directions of precision medicine in prostate cancer - the role of organoids and patient-derived xenografts.

Precision medicine is the concept of individualising patient management based on specific tumour characteristics and biology, rather than traditional histological subtypes. The overall aim is to personalise management to individual patients in order to provide the right cancer treatment to the right patient at the right time. While the approach aims to improve clinical outcomes, decrease morbidity and improve survival in men with advanced prostate cancer, its clinical application is in its infancy. In prostate cancer there has been a lack of data identifying potentially targetable alterations or biomarkers indicating response or resistance to therapies. Furthermore, it remains difficult to attain tissue or tumour specific biological material for subsequent analysis. In this paper, we aim to provide a clinically relevant outline of various current precision medicine principles and available evidence on the application and potential for a precision medicine approach in prostate cancer.

BJU international. 2020 May 08 [Epub ahead of print]

Andre Joshi, Matthew J Roberts, Saeid Alinezhad, Elizabeth D Williams, Ian Vela

Department of Urology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia., Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre-Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.