Predicting clinically significant prostate cancer from quantitative image features including compressed sensing radial MRI of prostate perfusion using machine learning: comparison with PI-RADS v2 assessment scores.

To investigate if supervised machine learning (ML) classifiers would be able to predict clinically significant cancer (sPC) from a set of quantitative image-features and to compare these results with established PI-RADS v2 assessment scores.

We retrospectively included 201, histopathologically-proven, peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer lesions. Gleason scores ≤3+3 were considered as clinically insignificant (inPC) and Gleason scores ≥3+4 as sPC and were encoded in a binary fashion, serving as ground-truth. MRI was performed at 3T with high spatiotemporal resolution DCE using Golden-angle RAdial SParse (GRASP) MRI. Perfusion maps (Ktrans, Kep, Ve), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and absolute T2-signal intensities (SI) were determined in all lesions and served as input parameters for four supervised ML models: Gradient Boosting Machines (GBM), Neural Networks (NNet), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). ML results and PI-RADS scores were compared with the ground-truth. Next ROC-curves and AUC values were calculated.

All ML models outperformed PI-RADS v2 assessment scores in the prediction of sPC (RF, GBM, NNet and SVM vs. PI-RADS: AUC 0.899, 0.864, 0.884 and 0.874 vs. 0.595, all P<0.001).

Using quantitative imaging parameters as input, supervised ML models outperformed PI-RADS v2 assessment scores in the prediction of sPC. These results indicate that quantitative imagining parameters contain relevant information for the prediction of sPC from image features.

Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery. 2020 Apr [Epub]

David Jean Winkel, Hanns-Christian Breit, Bibo Shi, Daniel T Boll, Hans-Helge Seifert, Christian Wetterauer

Department of Radiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland., Siemens Medical Imaging Technologies, Princeton, NJ, USA., Department of Urology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.