High spatiotemporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI improves the image-based discrimination of histopathology risk groups of peripheral zone prostate cancer: a supervised machine learning approach.

To assess if adding perfusion information from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI) acquisition schemes with high spatiotemporal resolution to T2w/DWI sequences as input features for a gradient boosting machine (GBM) machine learning (ML) classifier could better classify prostate cancer (PCa) risk groups than T2w/DWI sequences alone.

One hundred ninety patients (68 ± 9 years) were retrospectively evaluated at 3T MRI for clinical suspicion of PCa. Included were 201 peripheral zone (PZ) PCa lesions. Histopathological confirmation on fusion biopsy was matched with normal prostate parenchyma contralaterally. Biopsy results were grouped into benign tissue and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups (Gleason sum score 6, 7, and > 7, respectively). DCE MRI was performed using golden-angle radial sparse MRI. Perfusion maps (Ktrans, Kep, Ve), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and absolute T2w signal intensity were determined and used as input features for building two ML models: GBM with/without perfusion maps. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for correlated models were compared.

For the classification of benign vs. malignant and intermediate- vs. high-grade PCa, perfusion information added relevant information (AUC values 1 vs. 0.953 and 0.909 vs. 0.700, p < 0.001 and p = 0.038), while no statistically significant effect was found for low- vs. intermediate- and high-grade PCa.

Perfusion information from DCE MRI acquisition schemes with high spatiotemporal resolution to ML classifiers enables a superior risk stratification between benign and malignant and intermediate- and high-risk PCa in the PZ compared with classifiers based on T2w/DWI information alone.

• In the recent guidelines, the role of DCE MRI has changed from a mandatory to recommended sequence. • DCE MRI acquisition schemes with high spatiotemporal resolution (e.g., GRASP) have been shown to improve the diagnostic performance compared with conventional DCE MRI sequences. • Using perfusion information acquired with GRASP in combination with ML classifiers significantly improved the prediction of benign vs. malignant and intermediate- vs. high-grade peripheral zone prostate cancer compared with non-contrast sequences.

European radiology. 2020 Apr 23 [Epub ahead of print]

David J Winkel, Hanns-Christian Breit, Tobias K Block, Daniel T Boll, Tobias J Heye

Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Basel, 4031, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. ., Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Basel, 4031, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland.