Emergency room imaging in patients with genitourinary cancers: analysis of the spectrum of CT findings and their relation to patient outcomes.

To assess the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with genitourinary cancers visiting the emergency room (ER) and evaluate the relationship between CT findings and overall survival (OS).

Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with genitourinary cancers undergoing CT during an ER visit at a tertiary cancer center during a 20-month period. CTs were considered positive if there were findings relevant to the presenting complaint(s). Demographic/clinical variables were recorded. OS was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression (HR) was used to evaluate OS predictors.

Two hundred twenty-seven patients (243 visits) were included. The most common primary tumors were prostate (121 [49.8%]), bladder/urothelial (78 [32.1%]), and renal (69 [28.4%]). Common presenting complaints were abdominal pain (67 [27.6%]), respiratory symptoms (49 [20.2%]), neurological signs (37 [15.2%]), and fever (34 [14.0%]). CT findings were positive in 172 patients (70.8%) and included new/increased metastases (21.4% [52/243]), fluid collections (7.4% [18/243]), urinary tract infection/inflammation (6.2% [15/243]), enteritis/colitis (5.3% [13/243]), and pneumonia (4.9% [12/243]). A positive ER CT was associated with patient admission (p = 0.01). At multivariate analysis, independently predictive factors of shorter survival were positive ER CT (HR = 2.09 [95% CI 1.16-3.76, p = 0.01), hospital admission (HR = 2.17 [95% CI 1.38-3.41], p < 0.01), and recent systemic treatment (HR = 2.10 [95% CI 1.32-3.35], p < 0.01).

When CT was performed, it was able to identify a structural cause for the presenting complaint in the majority of patients with genitourinary cancers attending the ER. A positive ER CT was associated with hospital admission and poorer overall survival.

Emergency radiology. 2020 Apr 06 [Epub ahead of print]

Sungmin Woo, Jad Bou Ayache, Peter Sawan, Julian Infantino, Natalie Gangai, Andreas Wibmer, Hedvig Hricak, Jeffrey S Groeger, Hebert Alberto Vargas

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA. ., Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA., Urgent Care Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA.