In Puerto Rico, prostate cancer (PC) has the highest incidence and level of mortality. PC screening is performed using the standard prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) test with a cut-off value of 4.0 ng/mL. However, the standard PSA test is very controversial because it is subject to false positives and negatives.
To establish a new interpretation of the standard PSA test based on the strong correlation between total serum PSA and tumor volume.
A PSA database of 21,980 Puerto Rican men (2004-2015) with proven PC was provided by the Puerto Rico Cancer Center Register (PRCCR). A statistical analysis was conducted for the entire PC population divided into two categories i) age and PSA ranges and ii) diagnostic year, age ranges, and PSA ranges. The weighted first percentiles of the PSA ranges were used to define three PSA cut-off values related to small, intermediate, and large tumor volumes. Further, three baseline PSA weighted median values were calculated to enable better prognosis of PC.
Three PSA cut-off values of 2.1 ng/mL, 6 ng/mL, and 10.5 ng/mL were found related to small (1.0 cc), intermediate (2.8 cc), and large (5.0 cc) PC tumor volumes, respectively. PSA values greater than the weighted median values of 3.1 ng/mL, 7 ng/mL, were associated with increased risks of tumors growing from small to intermediate and from intermediate to large size, respectively. A PSA value greater than 14.1 ng/mL was related to metastasis.
In this research, we have found a new interpretation of the PSA test based on PSA cut-off values correlated to small, intermediate, and large prostate cancer tumor volumes. The set of these results together with the weighted PSA median values enhance the usefulness of the standard PSA test and provide a tool for a better decision-making and treatment.
Research and reports in urology. 2020 Mar 02*** epublish ***
Ernesto P Esteban, Lusmeralis Almodovar-Abreu
Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico-Humacao, Humacao 00791, Puerto Rico., Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico-Humacao, Humacao 00791, Puerto Rico.