Comparison of double inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (DIR-MRI) and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in detection of prostate cancer: A pilot study.

DCE-MRI is established for detecting prostate cancer (PCa). However, it requires a gadolinium contrast agent, with potential risks for patients. The application of DIR-MRI is simple and may allow cancer detection without the use of an intravenous contrast agent by differentially nullifying signal from normal and abnormal prostate tissue, creating contrast between the cancer and background normal prostate. In this pilot study we gathered data from DIR-MRI and DCE-MRI of the prostate for an equivalence trial. We also looked at how the DIR-MRI appearance varies with the aggressiveness of PCa.

DIR-MRI and DCE-MRI were acquired. The images were assessed by an experienced Consultant Radiologist and a novice reporter (Radiographer). The potential PCa lesions were quantified using a lesion to normal ratio (LNR). Radiological pathological correlation was made to identify the MRI lesions that represented significant PCa. A Wilcoxon sign rank was used to compare DCE-LNR and DIR-LNR for PCa containing lesions. Pearson's correlation was used to look at the relationship between DIR-LNR and PCa grade group (aggressiveness).

DCE-LNR and DIR-LNR were found to be significantly different (Z = -5.910, p < 0.001). However, a significant correlation was found between PCa grade group and DIR-LNR.

DIR and DCE sequences are not equivalent and significant cancer is more conspicuous on the DCE sequence. However, DIR-LNR does correlate with PCa aggressiveness.

With the correlation of PCa grade group with DIR-LNR this may be a useful sequence in evaluation of the prostate; stratifying the risk of there being clinically significant PCa before biopsy is performed. Furthermore, given that DIR-LNR appears to predict PCa aggressiveness DIR might be used as part of a multiparametric MRI protocol designed to avoid biopsy.

Radiography (London, England : 1995). 2020 Jan 06 [Epub ahead of print]

E N Onwuharine, A J Clark

Radiology Department, University Hospitals of North Midlands (UHNM) NHS Trust, UK. Electronic address: ., Radiology Department, University Hospitals of North Midlands (UHNM) NHS Trust, UK. Electronic address: .