Long term follow-up and outcomes of re-treatment in an expanded 50 patient single-center phase II prospective trial of Lutetium-177 (177Lu) PSMA-617 theranostics in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

Objectives: Lutetium-177 (177Lu)-PSMA-617 (LuPSMA) is a radioligand with high affinity for prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) enabling targeted beta-irradiation of prostate cancer. We have previously reported favorable activity with low toxicity in a prospective phase II trial involving 30 men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We now report their longer-term outcomes including a 20 patient extension cohort and outcomes of subsequent systemic treatments following completion of trial therapy. Methods: 50 patients with PSMA-avid mCRPC who had progressed after standard therapies received up to 4 cycles of LuPSMA every 6 weeks. Endpoints included PSA response (PCWG2), toxicity (CTCAE v4.03), imaging response, patient-reported health-related quality of life (QoL), progression-free and overall survival. We also describe, as a novel finding, outcomes of men who subsequently progressed and had further systemic therapies, including LuPSMA. Results: 75 men were screened to identify 50 patients eligible for treatment. Adverse prognostic features of the cohort included short median PSA doubling time (2.3 months) and extensive prior treatment including prior docetaxel (84%), cabazitaxel (48%), and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide (90%). The mean administered radioactivity was 7.5 GBq/cycle. PSA decline ≥ 50% was achieved in 32 of 50 patients (64%, 95% CI 50-77%), including 22 patients (44%, 95% CI 30-59%) with ≥ 80% decrease. Of 27 patients with measurable soft tissue disease, 15 (56%) achieved an objective response by RECIST 1.1. The most common toxicities attributed to LuPSMA were self-limiting G1-2 dry mouth (66%), transient G1-2 nausea (48%), G3-4 thrombocytopenia (10%) and G3 anemia (10%). Brief pain inventory severity and interference scores decreased at all time points including at the 3 month follow-up with a decrease of -1.2 (95% CI -0.5 to -1.9, P = 0.001) and 1.0 (95% CI -0.2 to -0.18, P = 0.013), respectively. At a median follow-up of 31.4 months, median OS was 13.3 months (95% CI 10.5-18.7) with a significantly longer survival of 18.4 months (95% CI 13.8-23.8) in patients achieving a PSA decline ≥ 50%. At progression following prior response, further LuPSMA was administered to 15 (30%) patients (median 2 cycles commencing 359 days from enrolment) with PSA decline ≥ 50% in 11 patients (73%). 4 of 21 patients (19%) receiving other systemic therapies upon progression experienced PSA decline ≥ 50%. There were no unexpected adverse events with LuPSMA re-treatment. Conclusion: This expanded 50 patient cohort of men with extensive prior therapy confirms our earlier report of high response rates, low toxicity and improved QoL with LuPSMA radioligand therapy. Upon progression, re-challenge LuPSMA demonstrated higher response rates than other systemic therapies.

Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2019 Nov 15 [Epub ahead of print]

John Violet, Shahneen Sandhu, Amir Iravani, Justin Ferdinandus, Sue Ping Thang, Grace Kong, Aravind Ravi Kumar, Tim Akhurst, David A Pattison, Alexis Beaulieu, Jennifer Mooi, Christina Guo, Victor Kalff, Declan G Murphy, Price Jackson, Peter Eu, Mark Scalzo, Scott Williams, Rod J Hicks, Michael S Hofman

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne VIC, Australia, AUSTRALIA.