Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of time until biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) without neo- or adjuvant treatment on clinical progression (CP) and cancer-related death (CRD) in high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) patients. Materials and methods: A total of 433 men with clinically HRPCa treated between 2001 and 2017 were identified. HRPCa was defined as clinical stage ≥T2c and/or biopsy Gleason score (GS) ≥8 and/or preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA) value ≥20 ng/ml. Exclusion criteria were neo- or adjuvant treatment and incomplete pathological or follow-up data. BCR was defined as two consecutive PSA values ≥0.2 ng/ml after RP. CP was identified as skeletal lesions, local or loco-regional recurrence. CRD was defined as death from PCa. All men were divided into two groups according to BCR. The chi-square and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics between groups. Biochemical progression free survival (BPFS), clinical progression free survival (CPFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Patients with detected BCR were analyzed for prediction of CP and CRD with respect to time until BCR. The impact of baseline parameters on BCR, CP, and CRD was assessed by Cox regression analysis. Results: BCR, CP, and CRD rates were 47.8% (207/433), 11.3% (49/433), and 5.5% (24/433), respectively. Median (quartiles) time of follow-up after RP was 64 (40-110) months. Ten-year BPFS rate was 34.2%; CPFS, 81%; and CSS, 90.1%. Men with detected BCR were analyzed for prediction of CP and CRD with respect to time until BCR. The most informative cutoff for time from RP until CP and CRD was ≤ 1 year (p < 0.008). According to this cutoff, men were divided into two groups: BCR detected within 1 year and after a 1-year period. Ten-year CPFS was 49.8% in men with early BCR vs. 81.1% in men with late BCR; CSS was 70.9 vs. 92.8% (p = 0.001). Multivariable analysis confirmed that time until BCR within 1 year predicts CP (p = 0.005) and CRD (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Early BCR is associated with poorer oncological outcomes. The presented results may help both to improve follow-up strategy and opt for more aggressive multimodal treatment of HRPCa in men with very early BCR.
Frontiers in oncology. 2019 Nov 22*** epublish ***
Zilvinas Venclovas, Mindaugas Jievaltas, Daimantas Milonas
Department of Urology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Kaunas, Lithuania.