Diagnostic Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Targeted Biopsy for Prostate Cancer in Biopsy-Naïve Men: A Meta-Analysis.

To investigate the diagnostic role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsy (TB) for prostate cancer (PCa) in biopsy-naïve men.

Own control studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to December 2018 were identified via a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and the Cochrane Library. We pooled relative sensitivity (or risk ratio [RR]) to compare diagnostic efficiency for PCa and clinically significant PCa (csPCa) between TB and systematic biopsy (SB). The independent role of either biopsy pathway was evaluated for participants with positive/negative MRI.

Thirty-one studies consisting of 25 own control studies and 6 RCTs were included. We identified 4,020 biopsy-naïve men with positive MRI who underwent two biopsies concurrently, with PCa/csPCa detection rates of 65.90 and 45.13%, respectively. TB and SB did not differ in the detection of any PCa (RR 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-1.05). However, TB detected more csPCa (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.30) and more PCa with a Gleason score ≥3+4 (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34). Using a combined test as a reference, omitting SB resulted in detecting 12.81% less csPCa and 20.76% less clinically insignificant PCa (cinsPCa), and omitting TB resulted in detecting 25.69% less csPCa and 10.8% more cinsPCa. For patients with negative MRI, omitting SB led to underdetection of 30.29% of any PCa (10.9% of csPCa).

Combining TB and SB increased the diagnostic accuracy of csPCa for biopsy-naïve men with positive MRI, and omitting SB for patients with a negative MRI would lead to the underdetection of nearly 10% of csPCa.

Urologia internationalis. 2019 Dec 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Xiang Tu, Zhenhua Liu, Chichen Zhang, Tiancong Chang, He Xu, Yige Bao, Jiakun Li, Kun Jin, Qiming Yuan, Shi Qiu, Lu Yang, Qiang Wei

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China., West China School of Clinical Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China., Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, .