Urine may represent a convenient source of biomarkers for the early detection of Prostate Cancer (PCa) since it contains secreted prostatic products and exfoliated tumor cells. Furthermore, urine is easy to collect with non-invasive procedures which are repeatable.
Several urinary biomarkers for PCa have been proposed in the past but only one (PCA3) has been approved for clinical use and even this is not widely utilized in the routine practice. Most of these, particularly the proteins, were abandoned due to lack of confirmation. DNA markers have been proposed but they are less suitable compared to other malignancies, such as bladder cancer due to the limited amount of DNA somatic alterations in PCa compared to gene fusions and pathway activations.
RNA biomarkers are still the most promising and particularly miRNA and AMACR mRNA but the main weaknesses that prevented the full clinical implementation are the absence of a validated of the cut-off levels and the identification of consistent reference standards.
Current drug metabolism. 2017 Oct 16 [Epub]
Francesca Giunchi, Chiara Ciccarese, Rodolfo Montironi, Marina Scarpelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng, Holger Moch, Francesco Massari, Michelangelo Fiorentino
Pathology Department, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna. Italy., Medical Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, University of Verona, Verona. Italy., Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, AOU Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona. Italy., Department of Surgery and Pathology, Cordoba University Medical School, Cordoba, Spain and Champalimaud Clinical Center, Lisbon. Portugal., Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, IN. United States., Department for Pathology and Molecular Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich. Switzerland., Division of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna. Italy., Addarii Institute of Oncology, Viale Ercolani 4/2, 40138, Bologna. Italy.