18F-DCFPyL PET/CT in the Detection of Prostate Cancer at 60 and 120 Minutes: Detection Rate, Image Quality, Activity Kinetics, and Biodistribution.

There is increasing interest in PET/CT with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) tracers for imaging of prostate cancer because of the higher detection rates of prostate cancer lesions than with PET/CT with choline. For 68Ga-PSMA-11 tracers, late imaging at 180 min after injection instead of imaging at 45-60 min after injection improves the detection of prostate cancer lesions. For 18F-DCFPyL, improved detection rates have recently been reported in a small pilot study. In this study, we report the effects of PET/CT imaging at 120 min after injection of 18F-DCFPyL in comparison to images acquired at 60 min after injection in a larger clinical cohort of 66 consecutive patients with histopathologically proven prostate cancer. Methods: Images were acquired 60 and 120 min after injection of 18F-DCFPyL. We report the positive lesions specified for anatomic locations (prostate, seminal vesicles, local lymph nodes, distant lymph nodes, bone, and others) at both time points by visual analysis, the image quality at both time points, and a semiquantitative analysis of the tracer activity in both prostate cancer lesions as well as normal tissues at both time points. Results: Our data showed a significantly increasing uptake of 18F-DCFPyL between 60 and 120 min after injection in 203 lesions characteristic for prostate cancer (median, 10.78 vs. 12.86, P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). By visual analysis, 38.5% of all patients showed more lesions using images at 120 min after injection than using images at 60 min after injection, and in 9.2% a change in TNM staging was found. All lesions seen on images 60 min after injection were also visible on images 120 min after injection. A significantly better mean signal-to-noise ratio of 11.93 was found for images acquired 120 min after injection (P < 0.001, paired t test; signal-to-noise ratio at 60 min after injection, 11.15). Conclusion:18F-DCFPyL PET/CT images at 120 min after injection yield a higher detection rate of prostate cancer characteristic lesions than images at 60 min after injection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the best imaging time point for 18F-DCFPyL.

Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2017 Apr 27 [Epub]

Maurits Wondergem, Friso M van der Zant, Remco J J Knol, Sergiy V Lazarenko, Jan Pruim, Igle J de Jong

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep locatie Alkmaar, Alkmaar, The Netherlands ., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep locatie Alkmaar, Alkmaar, The Netherlands., Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; and., Department of Urology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.