Cancer-Specific Mortality Among Korean Men with Localized or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Treated with Radical Prostatectomy Versus Radiotherapy: A Multi-Center Study Using Propensity Scoring and Competing Risk Regression Analyses.

Studies comparing radical prostatectomy (RP) outcomes with those of radiotherapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy (RT±ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, we used propensity score-matched analysis and competing risk regression analysis to compare cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) between these two treatments.

The multi-center, Severance Urological Oncology Group registry was utilized to identify 3,028 patients with clinically localized or locally advanced PCa treated by RP (n=2,521) or RT±ADT (n=507) between 2000 and 2016. RT±ADT cases (n=339) were matched with an equal number of RP cases by propensity scoring based on age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, clinical tumor stage, biopsy Gleason score, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). CSM and OCM were co-primary endpoints.

Median follow-up was 65.0 months. Five-year overall survival rates for patients treated with RP and RT±ADT were 94.7% and 92.0%, respectively (p=0.105). Cumulative incidence estimates revealed comparable CSM rates following both treatments within all National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk groups. Gleason score ≥ 8 was associated with higher risk of CSM (p=0.009). OCM rates were comparable between both groups in the low- and intermediate-risk categories (p=0.354 and p=0.643, respectively). For high-risk patients, RT±ADT resulted in higher OCM rates than RP (p=0.011). Predictors of OCM were age ≥ 75 years (p=0.002) and CCI ≥ 2 (p < 0.001).

RP and RT±ADT provide comparable CSM outcomes in patients with localized or locally advanced PCa. The risk of OCM may be higher for older high-risk patients with significant comorbidities.

Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association. 2017 Mar 08 [Epub]

Kyo Chul Koo, Jin Seon Cho, Woo Jin Bang, Seung Hwan Lee, Sung Yong Cho, Sun Il Kim, Se Joong Kim, Koon Ho Rha, Sung Joon Hong, Byung Ha Chung

Department of Urology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea., Department of Urology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea., Department of Urology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea., Department of Urology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea., Department of Urology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.