There are no published reports of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) guided dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (DE-IMRT) in newly diagnosed lymph node (LN) positive prostate cancer. We report early toxicity and efficacy outcomes with this approach.
Patients with newly diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer were staged using PSMA PET, computed tomography (CT) and bone scans. Patients with LN positive-only metastases were offered curative therapy using 3 months androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) followed by DE-IMRT (using volumetric arc therapy), and 3 years adjuvant ADT. All patients had fiducial marker insertion, with privately insured patients having spacer hydrogel insertion. PET and prostate magnetic resonance imaging were fused with the planning CT. We aimed to deliver 81 Gy in 45 fractions (Fx) to the prostate and PET-positive LNs, and 60 Gy in 45Fx to bilateral elective pelvic LNs.
In all, 46 patients were treated, with 83% Gleason 8-10, 67% T3/T4, median number of LNs 2 (range 1-6), and median PET-positive LN volume 1.14 cc (range 0.15-4.14). LNs were outside of standard contouring guidelines in 37% of patients. The mean PET-positive LN clinical target volume dose ranged from 73.3 to 85.9 Gy (median 83.6 Gy). With 24 months median follow-up, two year failure-free survival was 100%, and 2 year overall survival 95.7%. Acute grade 1 and 2 GI toxicity occurred in 48 and 11% of patients, and GU toxicity in 72 and 24%. Late grade 1, 2 and 3 GI toxicity occurred in 13, 2 and 0%, and GU toxicity 28, 13 and 4%. No toxicity was attributable to the high dose LN boost.
PSMA PET-guided DE-IMRT up to 81 Gy to the prostate and involved LNs, and long term ADT, is a promising approach for newly diagnosed LN positive prostate cancer. LN contouring guidelines require re-evaluation in the era of PSMA PET imaging.
Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2019 Oct 23 [Epub ahead of print]
Thomas Philip Shakespeare, Elizabeth Eggert, Maree Wood, Justin Westhuyzen, Kirsty Turnbull, Natalie Rutherford, Noel Aherne
Department of Radiation Oncology, Mid-North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour, Australia. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiation Oncology, Mid-North Coast Cancer Institute, Port Macquarie, Australia., Department of Radiation Oncology, Mid-North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour, Australia., Nuclear Medicine and PET Department, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, Australia., Department of Radiation Oncology, Mid-North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Australia.