A review of salvage treatment options for disease progression after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

Recurrence of prostate cancer after initial treatment with radiation therapy (RT) is highly dependent on pretreatment risk group and unfortunately, a proportion of patients fail primary treatment. The treatment of recurrence after primary radiation is rapidly changing with advances in imaging and it is important to distinguish those with a local failure from those with distant failure. If disease remains locally confined, salvage treatment with a variety of techniques can still provide a potential cure. Patients with distant failure are often treated with androgen deprivation, or in those with a shorter life expectancy, conservative management. In patients with a higher burden of metastatic disease, there is emerging evidence that chemotherapy and advanced androgen therapy can improve survival. We review the relevant literature on available salvage treatment options and appropriate patient selection for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. We report on the efficacy and adverse effects of the currently available local salvage modalities including salvage radical prostatectomy, high dose rate and low dose rate brachytherapy, cryotherapy, high intensity focused ultrasound, and stereotactic body RT. We additionally discuss diagnosis of oligometastatic disease on imaging and current approaches to treatment with either radiation or surgery. While a full review of chemotherapy and advanced androgen therapies is beyond the scope of this article we briefly discuss their use in the treatment of newly diagnosed recurrence after radiation.

Urologic oncology. 2019 May 24 [Epub ahead of print]

Ethan M Steele, Jordan A Holmes

Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN., Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN. Electronic address: .

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