Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer in men and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a key role in PC tumor growth and progression, with androgens stimulating PC proliferation and survival.
Castration-resistant PC (CRPC) is characterized by increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen or radiographic progression despite androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). In most patients, castration resistance results from aberrations in AR or the AR signaling pathway. Up to one-third of patients with localized high-risk PC will have disease progression on local therapy and develop CRPC. This review summarizes the key clinical data, including ongoing trials, for hormonal therapies in CRPC and provides an overview of the clinical development of darolutamide, a novel, nonsteroidal AR antagonist currently in phase III development for the treatment of nonmetastatic CRPC and metastatic hormone-sensitive PC. In phase I/II trials, darolutamide has demonstrated a favorable safety profile, antitumor activity, and significant decreases in prostate-specific antigen in patients with metastatic CRPC. In the phase III ARAMIS (NCT02200614; A Multinational, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Efficacy and Safety Study of Darolutamide [ODM-201] in Men With High-Risk Non-metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer) study, metastasis-free survival is being evaluated in men with nonmetastatic CRPC who will receive ADT in combination with darolutamide or placebo. The ARASENS (NCT02799602; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Phase III Study of Darolutamide [ODM-201] Versus Placebo in Addition to Standard Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Docetaxel in Patients With Metastatic Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer) study is a placebo-controlled trial assessing whether the addition of darolutamide to ADT and docetaxel significantly prolongs overall survival in men with metastatic hormone-sensitive PC.
Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2018 Jul 24 [Epub]
Karim Fizazi, Matthew R Smith, Bertrand Tombal
Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Cancer Medicine, University of Paris Sud, Villejuif, France. Electronic address: ., Departments of Hematology/Oncology and Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA., Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc Université Catholique de Louvain Brussels, Woluwe-Saint-Lambert, Brussels, Belgium.