Magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound image fusion guidance of prostate biopsies: current status, challenges and future perspectives.

The use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is rapidly evolving to try to overcome the limitations of the current diagnostic pathway using systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies (TRUSbx) for all men with clinical suspicion of PCa. Prostate mpMRI allows for high quality lesion detection and characterization and has been shown to improve detection of significant PCa with a more accurate Gleason score grading. Suspicious lesions can be stratified by suspicion and sampled by selective MRI-guided targeted biopsies (TBx) for improved diagnostic accuracy. Several TBx methods have been established and include MRI/TRUS image fusion biopsies (cognitive or software-assisted) and in-bore biopsies, but none have yet proven superior in clinical practice. However, while MRI in-bore biopsy is not routinely used due to its costs and limited availability, MRI/TRUS image fusion is rapidly embraced as it allows skilled urologists to perform TBx in an outpatient clinic. Furthermore, it gives the operator the advantage of adding TBx to the systematic standard biopsy scheme, which is the currently recommended approach. With the anticipated increased future use of prebiopsy mpMRI, a more widespread implementation of MRI/TRUS image fusion platforms is concurrently expected in clinical practice. Therefore, the objective of this review is to assess the current status, challenges and future perspectives of prostate MRI/TRUS image fusion biopsies.

Scandinavian journal of urology. 2019 Apr 22 [Epub ahead of print]

Lars Boesen

a Department of Urology and Urological Research , Herlev Gentofte University Hospital , Herlev , Denmark.