Merging new-age biomarkers and nanodiagnostics for precision prostate cancer management.

The accurate identification and stratified treatment of clinically significant early-stage prostate cancer have been ongoing concerns since the outcomes of large international prostate cancer screening trials were reported. The controversy surrounding clinical and cost benefits of prostate cancer screening has highlighted the lack of strategies for discriminating high-risk disease (that requires early treatment) from low-risk disease (that could be managed using watchful waiting or active surveillance). Advances in molecular subtyping and multiomics nanotechnology-based prostate cancer risk delineation can enable refinement of prostate cancer molecular taxonomy into clinically meaningful and treatable subtypes. Furthermore, the presence of intertumoural and intratumoural heterogeneity in prostate cancer warrants the development of novel nanodiagnostic technologies to identify clinically significant prostate cancer in a rapid, cost-effective and accurate manner. Circulating and urinary next-generation prostate cancer biomarkers for disease molecular subtyping and the newest complementary nanodiagnostic platforms for enhanced biomarker detection are promising tools for precision prostate cancer management. However, challenges in merging both aspects and clinical translation still need to be overcome.

Nature reviews. Urology. 2019 Apr 08 [Epub ahead of print]

Kevin M Koo, Paul N Mainwaring, Scott A Tomlins, Matt Trau

Centre for Personalized Nanomedicine, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia., Centre for Personalized Nanomedicine, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. ., Department of Pathology, Department of Urology, Michigan Centre for Translational Pathology, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ., Centre for Personalized Nanomedicine, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. .

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