Triple treatment of high-risk prostate cancer. A matched cohort study with up to 19 years follow-up comparing survival outcomes after triple treatment and treatment with hormones and radiotherapy.

To evaluate the efficacy of a triple treatment strategy, including surgery, on high risk prostate cancer comparing long-term survival outcome with a cohort receiving standard radiotherapy with endocrine therapy.

This study compared two cohorts in survival outcomes, matched on the year of diagnosis and age. In both groups there was a curative intention to treat localized high-risk prostate cancer (one or more of Gleason score 8-10, PSA 20-50 or stage T3), diagnosed between 1995-2010, follow-up at the end of 2014. Triple treatment group: 153 patients treated primarily with radical prostatectomy with neoadjuvant endocrine treatment, and a majority with adjuvant radiotherapy. Standard radiotherapy group: 702 patients with a treatment of either external radiotherapy or high dose brachytherapy combined with external beam therapy, both modalities in combination with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy.

The prostate-cancer-specific mortality was 10% for the triple treatment group and 15% for the standard radiotherapy group during the period, HR = 2.01 (1.17-3.43), p = 0.011. The corresponding overall mortality was 26% vs 29%, HR = 1.54 (1.09-2.17), p = 0.015. High Gleason score was the dominating risk factor for early death due to the disease. Clinical T-stage was not an independent risk factor for death in this population.

Adding surgery in a multimodal treatment model in high-risk prostate cancer showed significantly better survival outcome compared with the current standard of radiotherapy. Surgery in this group is, therefore, compelling and that also includes a clinical T3-stage of the disease. The study is limited by possible selection bias for the two treatment models.

Scandinavian journal of urology. 2019 Apr 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Olof Gunnarsson, Sonny Schelin, Lars Brudin, Stefan Carlsson, Jan-Erik Damber

a Kalmar County Hospital , Kalmar , Sweden., b Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden., c Sahlgrenska Academy and University Hospital , University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg , Sweden.

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