Genetic counseling (GC) and genetic testing (GT) for prostate cancer (PCA) is a rapidly growing, affording opportunity for healthy lifestyle promotion in men aligned with cancer survivorship and cancer prevention goals. We conducted a targeted dietary analysis of men undergoing GC/GT for PCA for adherence to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Pattern recommendations which align with preventing cancer and recurrences in the Genetic Evaluation of Men (GEM) study at two academic centers to inform future strategies for diet intervention.
Participants of GEM with PCA or at-risk for PCA completed a structured food frequency questionnaire indicating number of servings consumed per day or per week of fruits, vegetables, red meat, seafood, processed meat, and foods high in saturated fat. Adherence to the USDA recommendations was assessed for the total sample and by PCA status and aggressiveness, family history, and body mass index (BMI) through χ 2 contingency analyses. One-sample t tests were used to compare the dietary behaviors of men to USDA Recommendations. Levels of α were set a priori at P < 0.05.
Of 239 males undergoing GC on the study, surveys were completed by 197 men (82.4%), and complete survey data was available on 113 men (47.3%). By the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention BMI classification, 82.3% of the cohort was overweight (45.1%) or obese (37.2%). GEM participants reported consuming less fruits (P = 0.015), less vegetables ( P < 0.001), less seafood ( P < 0.001), more processed meats ( P < 0.001), and more foods high in saturated fats ( P < 0.001) than recommended.
A high proportion of men receiving GC/GT for PCA were overweight and/or obese with lack of adherence to national diet recommendations for cancer risk and recurrence, affording a teachable moment and supporting the systematic focus of introducing nutrition intervention during GC to promote survivorship.
The Prostate. 2019 Mar 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Brandy-Joe Milliron, Michael Bruneau, Elias Obeid, Laura Gross, Lisa Bealin, Christa Smaltz, Veda N Giri
Department of Nutrition Sciences, College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania., Department of Health Sciences, College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania., Department of Clinical Genetics, Temple-Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania., Cancer Risk Assessment and Clinical Cancer Genetics Program, Departments of Medical Oncology, Cancer Biology, and Urology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania., Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.