Performance and Impact of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen-Based Diagnostics in the Management of Men with Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer and its Role in Salvage Lymph Node Dissection.

Up to 50% of patients initially treated for prostate cancer in a curative intent experience biochemical recurrence, possibly requiring adjuvant treatment. However, salvage treatment decisions, such as lymph node dissection or radiation therapy, are typically based on prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence.

Importantly, common imaging modalities (e.g., computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scan) are limited and the detection of recurrent disease is particularly challenging if PSA is low. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a novel and promising imaging modality which aims to overcome the incapability of early identification of distant and regional metastases. Within this review, we summarize the current evidence related to PSMA-PET/CT in prostate cancer men diagnosed with biochemical recurrence after local treatment with curative intent. We discuss detection rates of PSMA-PET/CT stratified by PSA-levels and its impact on clinical decision making. Furthermore, we compare different imagefusion techniques such as PSMA-PET vs. F-/C-Choline-PET scans vs. PSMA-single photon emission computed tomography/CT. Finally, we touch upon the contemporary role of radio-guided-PSMA salvage lymphadenectomy.

The world journal of men's health. 2019 Mar 05 [Epub ahead of print]

Marieke J Krimphove, Lena H Theissen, Alexander P Cole, Felix Preisser, Philipp C Mandel, Felix K H Chun

Department of Urology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany., Division of Urological Surgery and Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.