Macroscopic locoregional relapse from prostate cancer: which role for salvage radiotherapy?

Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (PCa) is recommended as soon as PSA rises above 0.20 ng/ml, but many patients (pts) still experience local macroscopic relapse. The aim of this multicentric retrospective analysis was to evaluate the role of SRT in pts with macroscopic relapse.

From 2001 to 2016, 105 consecutive pts with macroscopic PCa relapse underwent SRT ± androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Mean age was 72 years. At time of relapse, 29 pts had a PSA value < 1.0 ng/mL, 50 from 1.1 to 5, and 25 pts > 5. Before SRT, 23 pts had undergone 18F-choline PET and 15 pts pelvic MRI. Ninety-four pts had prostatic bed relapse only, and four nodal involvement. Fifty-one pts were previously submitted to first-line ADT, while 6 pts received ≥ 2 lines.

At a median follow-up of 52 months, 89 pts were alive, while 16 were dead. Total RT dose to macroscopic lesions was > 70 Gy in 58 pts, 66-70 Gy in 43, and < 66 Gy in 4 pts. In 72 pts, target volume encompassed only the prostatic bed with sequential boost to macroscopic site; 33 pts received prophylactic pelvic RT. Ten-year overall survival was 76.1%, while distant metastasis-free survival was 73.3%. No grade 4-5 toxicities were found.

SRT ± ADT for macroscopic relapse showed a favorable oncological outcome supporting its important role in this scenario. Data from this series suggest that SRT may either postpone ADT or improve results over ADT alone in appropriately selected pts.

Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico. 2019 Mar 13 [Epub ahead of print]

A Bruni, G Ingrosso, F Trippa, M Di Staso, B Lanfranchi, L Rubino, S Parente, L Frassinelli, E Maranzano, R Santoni, M C Sighinolfi, F Lohr, E Mazzeo

Radiotherapy Unit, University Hospital of Modena, Via del Pozzo 71, 41100, Modena, Italy. ., Radiotherapy Unit, "Tor Vergata" University General Hospital, Rome, Italy., Radiotherapy Unit, "Santa Maria" University Hospital, Terni, Italy., Radiotherapy Unit, "Nuovo San Salvatore" Hospital, L'Aquila, Italy., Radiotherapy Unit, University Hospital of Modena, Via del Pozzo 71, 41100, Modena, Italy., Urology Unit, University Hospital of Modena, Modena, Italy.