Osteoporosis and prostate cancer; a 24-month prospective observational study during androgen deprivation therapy.

To analyze the prevalence of osteoporosis during androgen deprivation therapy (A.D.T.).

Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of A.D.T., including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis; osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality.

Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of A.D.T. were consecutively included from the daily clinic. They were followed every 6 months for 2 years. The study consisted of questionnaires, blood and urine samples and a D.X.A. scan every 6 months and yearly bone scintigraphy. A.D.T. was given as L.H.R.H. agonists, L.H.R.H. antagonists or orchiectomy. None of the patients had received prior A.D.T. or osteoporosis treatment.

A total of 105 individuals were included. The mean age was 70 years, median PSA level was 30.5 µg/L and median Gleason score was 7. During the study, the prevalence of osteoporosis rose from 10% at inclusion to 22% after the 2 years of follow-up and the prevalence of normal bone mineral density (B.M.D.) decreased from 32% to 8%. Osteoporotic fractures were prevalent; six patients had a clinical vertebral fracture and two patients had a hip fracture. One patient died after his hip fracture.

After 2 years of A.D.T. the vast majority of prostate cancer patients will have osteoporosis or osteopenia. A rigorous observation strategy did not appear to prevent osteoporotic fractures. A new strategy to reduce A.D.T. induced osteoporotic fractures is mandatory.

Scandinavian journal of urology. 2019 Feb 19 [Epub ahead of print]

Mads Hvid Poulsen, Morten Frost, Bo Abrahamsen, Oke Gerke, Steen Walter, Lars Lund

a Department of Urology , Odense University Hospital , Odense , Denmark., c Department of Endocrinology , Odense University Hospital , Odense , Denmark., e Department of Medicine and Endocrinology , Holbaek Hospital , Holbaek , Denmark., g Department of Nuclear Medicine , Odense University Hospital , Odense , Denmark.

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