The bisphosphonate Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a potent osteoclast inhibitor currently used in the clinic to reduce osteoporosis and cancer-induced osteolysis. Moreover, ZA exerts an anti-tumor effect in several tumors. Despite this evidence, the relevance of ZA in prostate cancer (PCa) is not completely understood.
To investigate the effect of ZA administration on the invasive properties of PC3 cells, which are characterised by RhoA-dependent amoeboid motility.
The effect of ZA administration on the in vitro invasive properties of PC3 cells was evaluated by cell migration in 3D collagen matrices, immunofluorescence and Boyden assays or transendothelial migration. Lung retention and colonization assays were performed to assess the efficacy of ZA administration in vivo.
PC3 cells are characterised by RhoA-dependent amoeboid motility. We now report a clear inhibition of in vitro PC3 cell invasion and RhoA activity upon ZA treatment. Moreover, to confirm a specific role of ZA in the inhibition of amoeboid motility of PC3 cells, we demonstrate that ZA interferes only partially with PC3 cells showing a mesenchymal phenotype due to both treatment with conditioned medium of cancer associated fibroblasts or to the acquisition of chemoresistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ZA impairs adhesion to endothelial cells and the trans-endothelial cell migration, two essential properties characterising amoeboid motility and PC3 metastatic dissemination. In vivo experiments prove the ability of ZA to inhibit the metastatic process of PC3 cells as shown by the decrease in lung colonization.
This study demonstrates that ZA inhibits Rho-dependent amoeboid motility of PC3 cells, thus suggesting ZA as a potential therapy to impede the metastatic dissemination of PC3 cells.
Current cancer drug targets. 2019 Jan 15 [Epub ahead of print]
Laura Pietrovito, Giuseppina Comito, Matteo Parri, Elisa Giannoni, Paola Chiarugi, Maria Letizia Taddei
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Viale Morgagni 50, 50142 Firenze. Italy., Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Viale Morgagni 50, 50142 Firenze. 0., Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Viale Morgagni 50, 50142 Firenze. Italy.