Clinical significance of multiparametric MRI and PSA density as predictors of residual tumor (pT0) following radical prostatectomy for T1a-T1b (incidental) prostate cancer.

The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of residual tumor and clinical prognosis in T1a-T1b (incidental) prostate cancer by analysis of specimens from men undergoing surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

We retrospectively reviewed medical records of incidental prostate cancer patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Patients whose tumor statuses were further confirmed by prostate biopsy, or who had used androgen deprivation therapy before radical prostatectomy, were excluded. Clinical and pathological parameters were analyzed to evaluate residual tumor and clinical prognosis. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, as well as receiver operator characteristics, to predict residual tumor (pT0).

The final analysis included 95 patients. Among these patients, 67 (70.53%) exhibited residual tumor, whereas 28 (29.47%) did not (pT0). Pathology findings showed that 44 (65.67%), 16 (23.88%), and 7 patients (10.45%) exhibited Gleason scores of G6, G7, and ≥G8, respectively. Fifty-seven and 10 patients exhibited pathologic T stages T2 and T3, respectively. Mean follow-up duration was 70.26 (±34.67) months. Biochemical recurrence was observed in 11 patients; none were pT0 patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed that low prostate-specific antigen density after benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery and invisible lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging were significantly associated with pT0. Additionally, a combination of these factors showed an increase in the diagnostic accuracy of pT0, compared with mpMRI alone (AUC 0.805, 0.767, respectively); this combination showed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 71.6%, 89.3%, and 94.1%, respectively.

Our results suggest that patients with incidental prostate cancer who have both prostate-specific antigen density ≤0.08 after benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery as well as invisible cancer lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging should be considered for active surveillance.

PloS one. 2018 Dec 28*** epublish ***

Doo Yong Chung, Hyeok Jun Goh, Dong Hoon Koh, Min Seok Kim, Jong Soo Lee, Won Sik Jang, Young Deuk Choi

Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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